User Story or Epic?

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I have two golden rules for user stories:

  1. The story should deliver business value: it should be meaningful to some customer, user, stakeholder. In some way the story should make their lives better.
  2. The story should be small enough to be delivered soon: some people say “within 2 days” but I’d generous, after all I used to be a C++ programmer, I’m happy as long as the story can be delivered within 2-weeks, i.e. the standard size of a sprint.

Now these two rules are in conflict, the need for value – and preferably more value! – pushes stories to be bigger while the second rule demands they are small. That is just the way things are, there is no magic solution, that is the tension we must manage.

Those two rules also help us differentiate between stories and epics – and tasks if you are using them:

  • Epics honour rule #1, epics are very valuable but they are not small, by definition they are large this epics are unlikely to be delivered soon
  • Tasks honour rule #2, they are small, very small, say a day of work. But they do not deliver value to stakeholders – or if they do it is not a big deal

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Tasks are the things you do to build stories. And stories are the things you do to deliver epics. If you find you can complete a story without doing one of the planned tasks then great, and similarly not all stories need to be completed for an epic to be considered done.

In an ideal world you would not need tasks, every story would be small enough to stand alone. Nor would you need epics because stories would justify themselves. We can work towards that world but until then most teams of my experience use two of these three levels – stories and tasks or epics and stories. A few even use all three levels.

Using more than three is an administration problem. There is always a fourth level above these, the project or product that is the reason they exist in the first place. But really, three levels is more than enough to model just about anything: really small, small, and damn big.

And every story is a potential epic until proven guilty.

More about epics, stories and tasks in Little Book of Requirements and User Stories and in my User Stories Masterclass next month (use Blog15 for 15% discount).


September micro-workshops – spaced limited

User Stories Masterclass, Agile Estimation & Forecasting, Maximising value delivered

Early bird discounts & free tickets for unemployed/furloughed

Book with code Blog15 for 15% discount or get more details


All books bundle summer discount

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Now seems the time to add Agile & OKRs to my all books bundle on LeanPub. This bundle allows you to buy all six of my LeanPub books in one go at a discount – $27 instead of $68. While the addition doesn’t apply retrospectively anyone buying the bundle from now on will get Agile OKRs in addition to the other six books.

And for the week the bundle is discounted to $19.99 using the code Summer33 on the LeanPub site.

(Unfortunately I can’t include The Art of Agile Product Ownership, Business Patterns or Changing Software Development in this bundle because the copyright is now owned by the publishers.)


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Agile: Prix fixe or a la carte?

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Advert: September micro-workshops – spaced limited

User Stories Masterclass, Agile Estimation & Forecasting, Maximising value delivered

Early bird discounts & free tickets for unemployed/furloughed

Book with code Blog15 for 15% discount or get more details


“They don’t do Scrum so much as ScrumBut”

“We don’t do Scrum by the book, we changed it”

“We follow SAFe, except we’ve tailored it”

“We do a mix of agile methods”

“They call it agile but it isn’t really”

You’ve heard all these comments right? But have you noticed the tone of voice? The context in which they are said?

In my experience people say these things in a guilty way, what they mean to say is:

“They don’t do Scrum so much as Scrum but we don’t do it the way we should”

“We don’t do Scrum by the book, we changed it, we dropped the Scrum Master, we flex our sprints, …”

“We follow SAFe, except we’ve tailored it by dropping the agile coaches, the technical aspects and …”

“We do a mix of agile methods, we don’t do anything properly and its half baked”

“They call it agile but I don’t think they really understand what agile is”

Practitioners aren’t helped by advisors – coaches, trainers, consultants, what-not – who go around criticising teams for not following “Brand X Method” properly. But forget about them.

I want to rid you of your guilt. Nobody should feel guilty for not doing Scrum by the book, or SAFe the right way, or perfect Kanban.

Nobody, absolutely no person or organization I have ever met or heard of, does any method by the book.

After all “agile is a journey” and you might just be at a different point on the journey right now. To me agile is learning and there is more learning to be done – should we criticise people because the haven’t learned something?

All these methods offer a price fix menu: you pay a fixed price and you get a set menu.

In reality all agile methods should be seen as an à la carte menu: pick what you like, mix and match.

In fact, don’t just pick from the Scrum menu or the SAFe menu, pick across the menus: Scrum, XP, Kanban, SAFe, LeSS, DaD, whatever!

And do not feel guilty about it.

Do it.

My agile method, Xanpan explicitly says: mix and match. Xanpan lays out a model but it also says change things, find what works for you, steal from others.

The only thing you can get wrong in agile is doing things the same as you did 3 months ago. Keep experimenting, keep truing new ways, new ideas. If you improve then great, if not, roll-back and try something else.

In other words, keep learning.

Picture: Thanks to Andersen Jensen for the above photo on Unsplash.


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Agile & OKRs – the end is in sight

The end is insight for my new book “Little Book of Agile and OKRs”. There are only a few more (short) chapters I want to write and I have put the wheels in motion to get a professional cover.

After that there is a lot of editing – including a professional copy edit – and perhaps a change of title, plus an audio version.

Anyone buying “Little Book of Agile and OKRs” will receive updates for free as they are published on LeanPub.

And if you are prepared to trade a little of your time I’m give you Little Book of Agile & OKRs for free. I’m looking for reviewers, right now I’d like feedback on my content, in a few months I’ll be looking for reviews on Amazon.


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Testing Testing 1 2 – video blog

Testing isn’t, or shouldn’t be, about finding bugs. Type-1 Testing is about ensuring you can go to Type-2 Testing and get some useful feedback. Customer feedback is the really valuable stuff: does your product address the need you saw? Is there more to do? More value to be got? – and does the value delivered justify the cost of doing it?

Testing-Testing 1 2 is a 13-minute video blog rerecording of a private presentation I did during lock-down, I hope you find it interesting.


September micro-workshops now booking, space limited

User Stories Masterclass, Agile Estimation & Forecasting, Maximising value

Early bird discounts, free tickets for unemployed & furloughed – Book with code Blog15 for 15% discount or get more details